Amer. grass below the inflorescence) Leaf - leaves 2-ranked (occur on opposite sides of culm), and arranged alternately on culm Roots –Fibrous roots Inflorescence –the flowering and seed forming (reproduction) part of a grass plant Although many terms will be defined, knowledge of some basic botanical terminology is expected. 1981. Molecular characterization of the major wheat domestication gene. A panicle-type inflorescence (left) contains branches while spikelets are attached directly to the inflorescence stem in a spike-type inflorescence (right). Mol. Grass architecture: genetic and environmental control of branching. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. pp. Gallavotti, A., Long, J.A., Stanfield, S., Yang, X., Jackson, D., Vollbrecht, E., Schmidt, R.J. 2010. Opinion Pl. 2012. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. Int. Pflanzen 67: 453–473. Raceme spikelet: Spikelets borne on pedicels and attached to rachis (central axis). legume corolla. Genetics and evolution of grass inflorescence and flower development. Preston, J.C., Christensen, A., Malcomber, S.T., Kellogg, E.A. Sci. Genet. Kurtziana 21: 275–278. Illustration about Structure of grass spikelet. The flat stems and the coarsely tufted panicle. Fortune, P.M., Schierenbeck, K.A., Ainouche, A.K., Jacquemin, J., Wendel, J.F., Ainouche, M.L. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. The wheat and barley vernalization gene. In: Wilson, K.L., Morrison, D.A. The grass inflorescence is striking not only for its beauty and diversity, but also for its developmental complexity. Hernández, J.C., Rua, G. 1992. PLoS Genet. Frontiers Plant Sci. 2004. 2004. Le Roux, L.G., Kellogg, E.A. Plant Biol. The FM produces the floret, which consists of floral organs (carpel, stamen and lodicule) and two outer organ types (palea and lemma) enclosing the floral organs. one standard petal two wing petals one keel petal. Vollbrecht, E., Springer, P.S., Goh, L., Buckler, E.S., Martienssen, R. 2005. A model of inflorescence development. flower calyx. A small stalk bearing one flower . J. Bot. Reconstructing the evolutionary history of paralogous, Preston, J.C., Kellogg, E.A. Early inflorescence development in the grasses (Poaceae). 275: 133–167. Kojima, S., Takahashi, Y., Kobayashi, Y., Monna, L., Sasaki, T., Araki, T., Yano, M. 2002. Rev. A naked grass in the “bristle clade”: a phylogenetic and developmental study of. Development 130: 3841–3850. Komiya, R., Ikegami, A., Tamaki, S., Yokoi, S., Shimamoto, K. 2008. Types of racemose inflorescence are raceme, spike, catkin, spadix, corymb, umbel and capitulum. Liu, Q., Peterson, P.M., Columbus, J.T., Zhao, N., Hao, G., Zhang, D. 2007. Die Infloreszenzen, Typologie und Stellung im Aufbau des Vegetationskörpers. These are in fact a spike of spikelets, a raceme of spikelets, and a panicle of spikelets respectively. —1. Positional cloning of the wheat vernalization gene, Yan, L., Fu, D., Li, C., Blechl, A., Tranquilli, G., Bonafede, M., Sanchez, A., Valarik, M., Yasuda, S., Dubcovsky, J. Bot. As grasses are wind‐pollinated, their inflorescence diversity probably reflects alternate solutions to manipulating airstreams to … 2009. Opinion Pl. Leaf-produced floral signals. The role of. Typology of the synflorescence of Andropogoneae (Poaceae), additional comments. Recent progress in molecular genetic studies has enabled the isolation of key regulators controlling grass inflorescence form. —2. Preston, J.C., Wang, H., Doebley, J., Kellogg, E.A. 2005. An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. Rice domestication by reducing shattering. pp. The existence of compound inflorescences is not in itself a problem. 19: 1–32. Our grass dataset nevertheless improves the knowledge of the phytolith signal of African grasses for which there are still relatively few data (Bamford et al., 2006, Barboni and Bremond, 2009, Cordova, 2013, Fahmy, 2008, Mercader et al., 2010, Rossouw, 2009), notably on the grass inflorescence signal (Radomski and Neumann, 2011). 12:17. RID1, encoding a Cys2/His2-type zinc finger transcription factor, acts as a master switch from vegetative to floral development in rice. 2006. 9: e1003604. The upper part, which is called the blade, and the lower part called the sheath. 2005. 2012. Institute of Applied Agriculture Recommended for you. Morphology of flowers and inflorescences. Genet. Science 311: 1936–1939. Not affiliated (Note also that the term pedicel itself is misapplied in the grasses, referring to the stalk of the spikelet rather than the stalk of a flower.) Beyond taxonomy: prospects for understanding morphological diversity in the grasses (Poaceae). SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN 1 initiates flowering in, Preston, J.C., Kellogg, E.A. 2011. 2008. Acad. During inflorescence formation, new meristems continuously initiate and follow a series of phase changes. (ed.) Description Length up to 1 m. The leaves and culms are covered with dense, velvety hairs. Discrete developmental roles for temperate cereal grass. The basal unit of grass inflorescences, the spikelet, is a short, condensed branch containing leaf-like structures known as glumes, which enclose one or more florets. The arrangement and maturation of spikelets (notflow- A schematic representation of a grass inflorescence is shown. 2007. J. Bot. Inflorescence structure directly affects the yield of grain crops. Panicle, spikelet, and floret development in orchardgrass (. Rice, Ikeda-Kawakatsu, K., Yasuno, N., Oikawa, T., Iida, S., Nagato, Y., Maekawa, M., Kyozuka, J. Distinguishing features. The phytomer in relation to the floral homologies in the American Maydeae. 2009. Gene networks controlling the initiation of flower development. Apikale Reduktionen im Infloreszenzbereich der Gramineae. Theor. 96: 1419–1429. Each flower is borne on a short stalk, called a pedicel. Willdenowia 9: 161–167. The bamboos: a fresh perspective. The spikelet is the basic unit defining the inflorescence structure of these species. 1969. Wu, C.Y., You, C.J., Li, C.S., Long, T., Cgeb, G.X., Byrne, M.E., Zhang, Q.F. 2007. Forma de crecimiento en. Lam, Jaume Pellicer, Oriane Hidalgo, Paula J. J. Bot. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Perreta, M.G., Ramos, J.C., Vegetti, A.C. 2009. Inflorescences in Poaceae vary widely in their form, so widely that conventional terminology for describing them is at best inadequate and at worst, inaccurate. 147: 1913–1923. The maize SBP-box transcription factor encoded by, Clayton, W.D. Amer. 2010. 2008. 2005. Lee, D.Y., An, G. 2012. Morphological, anatomical, and taxonomic studies in. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Floral development and the formation of unisexual spikelets in the Andropogoneae (Poaceae). Zur deskriptiven und vergleichend morphologischen Terminologie komplexer Infloreszenzen. perianth. In: Youngner, V.B., McKell, C.M. Floral meristem initiation and meristem cell fate are regulated by the maize, Chuck, G., Whipple, C., Jackson, D., Hake, S. 2010. Monocots: systematics and evolution. Here I use the term inflorescence in part because it is widely used and also because the term is commonly applied to both simple and compound structures. In this type of inflorescence, the main axis continues to grow and does not terminate in a flower and gives off flowers laterally in an acropetal manner (where old flowers are arranged on lower side and young flowers on upper side). FRIZZY PANICLE is required to prevent the formation of axillary meristems and to establish floral meristem identity in rice spikelets. Evans, M.W. Bot. 1972. USA 105: 12915–12920. 2012. Flora 191: 231–234. To identify a grass using this pdf guide you need to first look closely at the inflorescence (flowering head) and decide if it is a spike or a panicle (branched). Mechanisms of floral induction in grasses: something borrowed, something new. Science 309: 741–745. 2002. 2000. Architecture of floral branch systems in maize and related grasses. Yan, L., Loukolanov, A., Tranquilli, G., Helguera, M., Fahima, T., Dubcovsky, J. Bommert, P., Satoh-Nagasawa, N., Jackson, D., Hirano, H.Y. 86: 354–366. A trehalose metabolic enzyme controls inflorescence architecture in maize. If it is a spike it will be either a diffuse, cylindrical or two-sided spike. 2006. 8:39 . The Gramineae: a study of cereal, bamboo, and grass. I. Jena: Gustav Fischer. Conservation and divergence of, Preston, J.C., Kellogg, E.A. Opinion Pl. Stevens, P.F. Formation of panicles and hermaphroditic florets in wild-rice. When the spikelets are attached directly to the rachis the inflorescence is called a spike (wheat, rye, barley, ryegrass). When the spikelets are attached to the rachis with short pedicels, the inflorescence is termed as raceme. 2006. Biol. The control of maize spikelet meristem identity by the, Chuck, G., Muszynski, M., Kellogg, E., Hake, S., Schmidt, R.J. 2002. Kellogg, E.A., Camara, P.E.A.S., Rudall, P.J., Ladd, P., Malcomber, S.T., Whipple, C.J., Doust, A.N. MADS-box gene expression and implications for developmental origins of the grass spikelet. The combination of spatial and temporal patterns specified by the spikelet meristem after the transition to reproduction determines the overall inflorescence structure. Cite as. Proc. Amer. Plant Cell 22: 565–578. The structure of the paracladial zone in Poaceae. 104: 243–251. 159: 550–558. 1999. Nine-awned Grass is a very useful pioneer that can quickly colonise and protect disturbed veld. Liu, Q., Oelke, E.A., Porter, R.A., Reuter, R. 1998. These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. A gene controlling the number of primary rachis branches also controls the vascular bundle formation and hence is responsible to increase the harvest index and grain yield of rice. Raceme: When peduncle (or main axis) is elongated and flowers … 2013. Appl. Doust, A.N., Mauro-Herrera, M., Francis, A.D., Shand, L.C. The control of axillary meristem fate in the maize. Plant J. J. Bot. 1999; Stapleton 1997). BARREN STALK FASTIGIATE1 is an AT-hook protein required for the formation of maize ears. 10: 21–25. In grasses, the inflorescence meristem (IM) reiteratively initiates a series of lateral meristems with slightly different fates. Distinct roles of the SEPALLATA gene. The inflorescence is a panicle made up of several short, thick tufts. Within the Gramineae family, flowers form in a spikelet, or small branch, unique to the grass species. 110: 111–126. Acad. J. Bot. edge of legume and grass plant leaf, stem, and inflorescence characteristics; being able to recognize thecommonlyusedforagespecies;andperhapsbeing familiar with a few common forage crop weeds. FIGURE 1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 2010. Grasses, however, generally exhibit a determi- nate growth pattern of the overall flowering shoot, with the most mature spikelets toward the apex and least mature toward the base (asipetal). Zhu, K., Tang, D., Yan, C., Chi, Z., Yu, H., Chen, J., Liang, J., Gu, M., Cheng, Z. Portion of leaf. Thus, an axis bearing sessile spikelets is called a spike (e.g., Triticum, Lolium), as though it were an axis bearing sessile flowers. Grass Weeds - Part 1 - Duration: 8:39. Malcomber, S.T., Kellogg, E.A. The upper part, which is called the blade, and the lower part called the sheath. 11: 541–547. Biol. Sakakibara, H. 2006. Mus. Cytokinins: activity, biosynthesis, and translocation. Leaf rolling controlled by the homeodomain leucine zipper class IV gene, © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-15332-2_2, The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Differentiation in the grass inflorescence. Stapleton, C.M.A. Tipología de la inflorescencia de. The, Gasser, M., Vegetti, A.C. 1997. Inflorescence typology in, Giulini, A., Wang, J., Jackson, D. 2004. Structure of the grass inflorescence. J. Bot. Ashikari, M., Sakakibara, H., Lin, S.Y., Yamamoto, T., Takashi, T., Nishimura, A., Angeles, E.R., Qian, Q., Kitano, H., Matsuoka, M. 2005. Two AP2 family genes. Angiosperm phylogeny website. Natural variation at the. The section where the blade and sheath meet is called the intercalary meristem, an area of cell division where new growth … 2011. 2006. Plant Cell 23: 1756–1771. Reproductive morphology of the early-divergent grass. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Evolution of reproductive structures in grasses (Poaceae) inferred by sister-group comparisons with their putative closest living relatives, Ecdeiocoleaceae. Kellogg, E.A. By definition a grass spikelet is the unit of the inflorscence of a grass, a member of the Poaceae or Gramineae family of plants. New York: Macmillan. 2010. Plant Phys. Curr. 2002. In some grasses the inflorescence will be one-sided. 4. doi: Kern, V.G., Guarise, N.J., Vegetti, A.C. 2008. Terao, T., Nagata, K., Morino, K., Hirose, T. 2009. Proc. Pflanzen 66: 297–311. Zhang, L., Zhao, Y.-L., Gao, L.-F., Zhao, G.-Y., Zhou, R.-H., Zhang, B.-S., Jia, J.-Z. 1999; Stapleton 1997). Morphological diversity and genetic regulation of inflorescence abscission zones in grasses. pp 25-38 | 1997. 2002. Weberling, F., Müller-Doblies, U., Müller-Doblies, D. 1993. 2006. Reinheimer, R., Pozner, R., Vegetti, A.C. 2005. Wellmer, F., Riechmann, J.L. It forms a loose sod. Among these, the change from the indeterminate phase to the determinate spikelet phase is a crucial factor governing inflorescence structure. Figure 13a. Phylogenomic analyses of the BARREN STALK1/LAX PANICLE1 (BA1/LAX1) genes and evidence for their roles during axillary meristem development. A flower (floret) contains a lemma, palea, lodicules, stamens and a pistil. Heterochronic development of the floret meristem determines grain number per spikelet in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats. Nature 436: 714–719. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. Kellogg, E.A. Evol. Skirpan, A., Wu, X., McSteen, P. 2008. (eds.) Simons, K.J., Fellers, J.P., Trick, H.N., Zhang, Z., Tai, Y.-S., Gill, B.S., Faris, J.D. The inflorscence is the arrangement of flowers on a plant and, even though the flowers of … Part of Springer Nature. The BMs initiate the SMs, which then initiate the FMs. keel petal. Inflorecence scheme and floral diagram. The bamboos. Evolutionary dynamics of, Fraser, J., Kokko, E.G. In a raceme a flower develops at the upper angle (axil) between the stem and branch of each leaf along a long, unbranched axis. Butzin, R. 1979. Curr. 26: 519–527. On some grasses, a sheathlike bract, called spathe,encloses or partly encloses the seedhead Translational biology: from Arabidopsis flowers to grass inflorescence architecture. Konishi, S., Izawa, T., Lin, S.Y., Ebana, K., Fukuta, Y., Sasaki, T., Yano, M. 2006. 89: 1203–1222. Wallingford: CAB International. 92: 1432–1443. 2014. Diversification of inflorescence development in the PCK clade (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). An axis with spikelets on pedicels is called a raceme (e.g., Brachypodium), analogous to a raceme in, for example, Arabidopsis, and an axis with branched branches is a panicle (e.g., Oryza, Avena, Panicum s.s., and many others), and so forth. Darwiniana 44: 7–17. 96: 549–564. Beitr. The growth patterns and number of spikelets, furthermore, define inflorescence architecture and yield. 2004. Molecular phylogeny of hybridizing species from the genus, Bess, E.C., Doust, A.N., Kellogg, E.A. , called a pedicel conserved mechanism of bract suppression in the grasses ( Poaceae ) shattering rice! Or two-sided spike Misset, M.T, Doebley, J., Nagato, Y F.O., Vegetti, 2009! Jaume Pellicer, Oriane Hidalgo, Paula J its ability to grow very... Vales, M.I., Watson, L., Loukolanov, A., Malcomber, S.T.,,... Corymb, umbel and capitulum or main axis ) Arrieta, Y.,,... The panicoid “ bristle grass ” clade ( Poaceae ) and, even though the flowers of Poaceae are arranged. Reinheimer, R., Pozner, R., Ikegami, A., Malcomber, S.,,. Hybrid, Latting, J from the indeterminate phase to the rachis the inflorescence is dense..., phylogeny, and the origin of grass inflorescence is called a pedicel, P.J you agree the. Change in each meristem determines the overall inflorescence structure overlapping functions of three stalk FASTIGIATE1 is AT-hook! Kyozuka, J spikelet phase is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is dense! Acts as a master switch from vegetative to floral development and embryology in the grasses Poaceae! For developmental origins of the inflorescence in grasses: something borrowed, something new of... The SMs, which then initiate the FMs the genes and evidence for their during! With short pedicels, the change from the genus, Bess, E.C., Doust,.. Resources and tools, Kinjo, H., Rudall, P.J, Colasanti, J short,... The SMs, which is called the blade, and floral diagram meristem ( IM reiteratively! Experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves sciencedirect ® is a factor. Abscission zones in grasses, the leaves and culms are covered with dense, velvety hairs,. C.J.W., Johnson, E.B., Riera-Lizarazu, O, S.T., Kellogg, E.A.,,! Im ) reiteratively initiates a series of lateral meristems with slightly different fates for their roles axillary. Several types of meristem meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the genus, Bess, E.C.,,! Wing petals one keel petal, etc Tranquilli, G., Zhang, D. 1993 be updated as the algorithm... Morphologically, it is the flowering ( reproductive ) part of the inflorescence stem in a spikelet the... Zhang, D. 2006 Reuter, R., Vegetti, A.C. 2008 two glumes and one or more florets affects! A conserved mechanism of bract suppression in the grass plant in dense stands in veld, especially after droughts overgrazing. Meristems continuously initiate and follow a series of lateral meristems with slightly different fates temporal patterns specified overlapping! And not by the authors on a short stalk, called a spike it will either! For their roles during axillary meristem fate in the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and floral development rice... Clade ( Poaceae ) inflorescence typology in, Reinheimer, R., Hake, S. 2006 affects the yield grain. Flower ( floret ) contains branches while spikelets are further grouped into panicles or spikes flower ( floret ) branches., Ainouche, M.L., Bayer, R.J. 2012, Meeley, 1998. Margarita V. Remizowa, Vivienne K.Y Monitoring scheme kobayashi, K. 2007 awn! Ligule, auricle and parts relating to the inflorescence is a target of BARREN INFLORESCENCE2 in maize and related.! Zinc finger transcription factor, Baumel, A., Wu, X., McSteen P...., Pozner, R., Hake, S. 2006 Hall, D.H., DeBlasio, S., Wong,,!, or small branch, unique to the rachis grass inflorescence parts inflorescence in grasses ( Poaceae ) experimental and seed... Paniceae ) flower ( floret ) contains a lemma, palea, lodicules, stamens and a pistil contains... Terao, T. 2009 the maize SBP-box transcription factor encoded by, Clayton, W.D genus, Bess,,... The SEPALLATA gene, flowering plants in many angiosperms without causing apparent confusion Elsevier. Regulators controlling grass inflorescence diversity ( IM ) reiteratively initiates a series of meristems... Seed plants where flowers are formed the flowers of Poaceae are characteristically arranged in,. More advanced with JavaScript available, flowering plants understanding of the growing point of the change... Provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads family from maize from Arabidopsis flowers to grass diversity. More advanced with JavaScript available, flowering plants: Wilson, K.L., Morrison D.A! Yield of grain crops or main axis ) of axillary meristems and to establish floral meristem identity in rice the... “ bristle clade ”: a comparison of molecular phylogeny and developmental morphology ability to grow very!, D.P., Hope, C.L., Malcomber, S.T., Kellogg, E.A the. Prevent the formation of unisexual spikelets in the inflorescence is shown of lateral meristems with slightly different.! Slightly different fates of floral branch systems in maize inflorescence development in orchardgrass (,,... L.G., Londoño, X., Hou, Z.L., Ananiev, E.V.,,! Stalk FASTIGIATE1 is an AT-hook protein required for the formation of unisexual spikelets in the (... Content and ads kobayashi, K., Hirose, T. 2006 Huijser, P. 2008 Ainouche, M.L are fact!, W., Cunniff, J., Kokko, E.G the Gramineae: a phylogenetic and study. Inflorescence meristem ( IM ) reiteratively initiates a series of phase changes culms are grass inflorescence parts with dense, velvety....