It is a major rock forming mineral that produces massive beds, usually from precipitation out of highly saline waters. It is a very soft mineral and it can form very pretty, and sometimes extremely large colored crystals. The cave was first documented by Mark Raymond Harrington in a 1930 edition of Scientific American. Gypsum formation did not stop in prehistoric times. When the Egyptians learned that gypsum could be made into plaster by grinding it up and adding water, they used it everywhere inside their palaces, pyramids and tombs. Gypsum is a common mineral. As it still holding up thousands of years later, gypsum proves to be a durable building material. Gypsum can form anywhere where the right combination of mineral elements occurs and evaporation happens. It is a very soft mineral and it can form very pretty, and sometimes extremely large colored crystals. Gypsum is mined from sedimentary rock formations around the world. Gypsum is also found as a by-product of scrubbing sulfur from fossil fuels. The largest gypsum crystal was found in the Braden mine in Chile and exceeds 3 metres (about 10 feet) in length and 0.4 metre (about 1.5 feet) in diameter. It forms in lagoons where ocean waters high in calcium and sulfate content can slowly evaporate and be regularly replenished with new sources of water. to eight feet in thickness, and are often inter-layered with limestone or shale. 2H2O. It contains six rooms and is measured at 320 feet long by 120 feet wide. https://www.britannica.com/science/gypsum. Commercial quantities of gypsum are found in the cities of Araripina and Graja£, Brazil, Pakistan, Jamaica, Iran (world's second largest producer), Thailand, Spain (the main producer in Europe), Germany, Italy, England, Ireland, in British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland in Canada, and in New York, Michigan, Indiana, Texas (in the Palo Duro Canyon), Iowa, Kansas, Oklahoma, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arkansas and Nevada in the United States. A small amount of very pure gypsum is used in glass making and other specialized industrial applications. Due to its inherent fire resistance, gypsum board, commonly known as drywall is the premier building material for wall, ceiling, and partition systems in residential, institutional, and commercial structures. Another of its prominent uses is as various plasters. The popularity of gypsum as a building material grew from the mid-1880s as methods of controlling setting time were developed. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. When water evaporated, it left the mineral behind. In the United States, gypsum is mined in about 19 states. Over 30 million tons of gypsum is consumed in the United States annually. In these cases the ammonium nitrate is bagged in plastic bags before being lowered into the blast hole. Gypsum. Usually found with other evaporite and carbonate minerals, such as anhydrite, calcite, dolomite, borax, and halite, in altered carbonate rocks, gypsum may also be found with sulfur and pyrite. Gypsum is found in many parts of the world. The SciFest All Access virtual science festival will offer engaging STEM activities and performances extended through October 31, 2020, that celebrate the excitement of STEM for K-12 students, college students, educators, and families. Synonyms of Gypsum Hide Gypsum plant, Marshall County. Michigan is the number one producer of the yellowish sulfate mineral, gypsum, in the United States. The mineral is very soft, having a Mohs hardness of 1.5 – 2.0. The identity of those remains has not been released. Plaster of paris, quick-setting gypsum plaster consisting of a fine white powder (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), which hardens when moistened and allowed to dry. Gypsum (CaSO 4. Nova Scotia gypsum was shipped to the eastern US in the 1780s for use as land plaster. In Move Mining Next Gen, students from grades K-12 create and submit short, 3-minute videos to answer the question, “Why is mining important in our lives?”  There are prizes for a grades K-5 category ($250), a grades 6-8 category ($250) and a grades 9-12 category ($250), as well as an overall winner ($1,000). Gypsum deposits occur in many countries, but Spain, Thailand, the United States, Turkey, and Russia are among the leading producers. It is normally mixed 1 part gypsum and 20 parts cement. Plaster of… The most significant use for gypsum is for wallboard and plaster products. Massive gypsum rock forms within layers of sedimentary rock, typically found in thick beds or layers. Mines use approximately 1 kg of explosives for each ton of gypsum they blast. It is processed and used as prefabricated wallboard or as industrial or building plaster, used in cement manufacture, agriculture and other uses. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Gypsum crystals are known for their flexibility, and slim crystals can be slightly bent. Gypsum is a mineral found in crystal as well as masses called gypsum rock. Most of the gypsum produced in … It is found in layers that were formed under salt water millions of years ago. A not-for-profit trade association founded in 1930, promoting the use of gypsum while advancing the development, growth, and general welfare of the gypsum industry in the United States and Canada on behalf of its member companies Home Mining & Minerals Information Minerals Database. Gypsum outcrop in Clark County Gypsum is a mineral commonly found in Kansas. It is found in thick beds amid layers of sedimentary rocks, such as limestone, shale, and sandstone.Of the three varieties of gypsum—selenite, satin spar, and rock gypsum—Permian-age rock gypsum is mined in Barber County in south-central Kansas and in Marshall County in northeastern Kansas. In southern Tunisia and the central Namib Desert, gypsum crusts are found around ephemeral lakes. The result is the accumulation of large beds of sedimentary gypsum. Most of the world’s gypsum is produced by surface-mining operations. Known since ancient times, plaster of paris is so called because of its preparation from the abundant gypsum found near Paris. (Though trying to bend good crystals is not recommended, as their flexibility is weak, and if … Gypsum is mined from sedimentary rock formations around the world. Register here. Gypsum. Gypsum crystals still form when minerals crystallize as water evaporates. There, a giant Zamboni-like machine scrapes nearly pure gypsum, layer-by-layer from the mountain. What rocks contain gypsum? In the United States, gypsum mainly occurs in New York, Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, Texas, Nevada, and California. As seawater evaporates, gypsum is the first ‘salt’ to be precipitated, followed by anhydrite, halite, and finally sylvite. The states producing the most gypsum are Oklahoma, Iowa, Nevada, Texas, and California. Massive gypsum rock forms within layers of sedimentary rock, typically found in thick beds or layers. Massive gypsum rock forms within layers of sedimentary rock, typically found in thick beds or layers. GYPSUM, Colo. (CBS4) – Human remains were found at the site of a home explosion in Gypsum. The result is the accumulation of large beds of sedimentary gypsum. In the state, gypsum can be found in glacial deposits and the Michigan Basin. This page shows answers to the clue Gypsum, followed by ten definitions like “Calcium sulfate dihydrate”, “Used to make Plaster of Paris” and “Hydreous calcium sulphate”.A synonym for Gypsum is cast. It is also found in huge quantities 20-50cm below the surface as a form of ‘varved’ or banded gypsum. When water evaporated, it left the mineral behind. In most open pit gypsum operations, benches are drilled and blasted using ammonium nitrate as the explosive. The United States is the world’s leading consumer of wallboard at over 30 billion square feet per year. Commonest of the sulphate minerals, gypsum is found in marine evaporites, in caves where the air is dry enough to allow it to be deposited and remain, at fumaroles, and in the oxidized zones of sulfide deposits on occasion. The result is the accumulation of large beds of sedimentary gypsum. As a mineral, it can form attractive, and sometimes extremely large, crystals. These geologic areas are called evaporation basins because as the climate changed from tropic to arid the wa… Gypsum is mined from sedimentary rock formations around the world. Such crystals are found in a clay beds as floater crystal s, where they fully form without being attached to a matrix. It is mainly extracted through quarrying and is used in cement production. … This is seen in its chemical formula is CaSO 4 2H 2 0. In the U.S., commercial sedimentary gypsum deposits occur in New York and Michigan; others of economic … Gypsum can be found as thick layers in shale and as attractive crystals. Canada, Mexico and Spain are other significant producers of raw gypsum. Gypsum is a hydrous, soft sulfate mineral, specifically a calcium sulfate dihydrate, which means it has two molecules of water in its chemical composition. It is processed and used as prefabricated wallboard or as industrial or building plaster, used in cement manufacture, agriculture and other uses. Sometimes the drill holes become wet, which can cause problems with the ammonium nitrate. It is trucked to a football-field-sized plant south of the highway where its powdered, baked and mixed in a gizmo that looks something like a giant cake-mixer. Gypsum is mainly found in eastern St. Andrew in the Port Royal Mountains. It is found in layers that were formed under salt water millions of years ago. It occurs as clumps of crystals or in thick beds. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Help support true facts by becoming a member. A vein of gypsum found by a NASA rover is the "single most powerful piece of evidence" early Mars had liquid water, an expert says. There is an additional prize ($500) for the video that receives the most votes online—the People’s Choice winner. 4. Gypsum Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral, composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate. Some gypsum is used to make Portland cement, and some is used in agricultural applications. Gypsum is a white mineral, CaSO 4.2H 2 O (hydrous calcium sulfate), used in the manufacture of cements and plasters, especially plaster of Paris (to control the rate of setting of Portland cement), and also in some fertilizers.See calcium.. Gypsum is found in both mineral and rock form. It is a very soft mineral and it can form very pretty, and sometimes extremely large colored crystals. If conditions are right, large quantities of gypsum build up into thick beds of sedimentary rock. Gypsum is a mineral found in crystal as well as masses called gypsum rock. In all, more than 90 countries produce gypsum. The chemical difference is that gypsum contains two waters and anhydrite is without water. It forms in lagoons where ocean waters high in calcium and sulfate content can slowly evaporate and be regularly replenished with new sources of water. Gypsum is one of the more common minerals in sedimentary environments. All modern homes in North America and other developed countries use a great deal of wallboard for interior walls. Gypsum beds were formed in shallow sea basins. It forms in lagoons where ocean waters high in calcium and sulfate content can slowly evaporate and be regularly replenished with new sources of water. Since it forms easily from saline water, gypsum can have many inclusions of … Though gypsum deposits can be found in several countries, its largest producers are, the United States, France, Italy, Canada, Australia, and Great Britain. When gypsum is heated and the water within the mineral is evaporated out, gypsum turns into a chalk or plaster, known as plaster of Paris. It takes the form of crystals which can at times be found projecting from rock – leading to its old English name of the Spear Stone. Go to www.MoveMiningNextGen.org to learn how to make and submit your video! 2H 2 O) is very similar to Anhydrite (CaSO 4). Gypsum is a common mineral. Gypsum was used by the builders of the pyramids as a construction material and earlier by artisans producing decorative objects. It is widely mined and is used as a fertilizer and as the main constituent in many forms of plaster, blackboard/sidewalk chalk, and drywall. 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